Construction of the questionnaire involved adapting questions from a review of existing literature that had looked at the reasons behind children’s purchases from fast food takeaway outlets.3 , 4 , 15 , 16 Participants were asked to self-report their gender, age, date of birth and ethnicity. 17 Free school meal entitlement was used as a proxy measure of deprivation in our survey, and it is also commonly used to investigate schoolchildren families’ income level.3 , 18 Participants were also asked how often they would purchase food/drinks from fast food takeaway outlet over a week period. Previous studies have also used this type of question to define frequency of fast food consumption.3 , 4 Participants were asked to indicate what portion size of chips they would normally purchase. Participants were asked to rank their three most popular types of beverages they would normally purchase. Participants were also asked to report their average level of physical activity during weekends and weekdays on the same questionnaire. Response options include from <2 h, 2–5 h and 5 h or more per day.

An excellent airplane pilot examination of the newest survey try carried out with a tiny shot of children (n=30) old 12–13 years. Advice about airplane pilot data provided rewording all the questions is most useful understood and also to limit exactly how many discover-finished concerns. The fresh questionnaire try delivered in both schools anywhere between and you can try complete by the 193 youngsters. The fresh new questionnaire was designed to end up being care about-given. Coached search assistants were open to help youngsters which necessary assist having skills otherwise studying all the questions.


Anthropometric dimensions were obtained by the educated lookup personnel. Top was counted to the nearby millimetre having fun with SECA Leicester mobile peak size (stadiometer). All the professionals were coached to eradicate the shoes in advance of their level is actually removed in order to line up the lead throughout the Frankfurt planes.19 Pounds is measured to the nearest 0.step one kilogram having fun with calibrated Weight Watchers Easy Read Precision electronic balances (model: 8961U). Users was indeed trained to get rid of its footwear and you may outerwear, that’s, outside coat, and remain within consistent in advance of they certainly were weighed. Self-advertised specifications was in fact excluded from the investigation research lay while they was basically thought to be unsound. Bmi (BMI) are taken from measured level and you may lbs of your college students and determined by using the following formulae: Bmi kg/meters 2 = weight (kg)/height2 (metres). Bmi percentile to own ages and you may gender in accordance with the confirmed United kingdom 1990 source analysis maps try determined, looking at date away from delivery and time out of dimension.20–23 Percentile anywhere between 85th and 95th percentile are identified as fat and you will ?95th percentile try defined as overweight.24 , twenty-five 100 and you will twenty-you to definitely schoolchildren got accomplished studies for calculation out-of Bmi percentile having many years and you will intercourse.

Mathematical studies

Investigation had been analysed playing with SPSS V. (SPSS Inc.). Show revealed are generally exhibited since the form ± SD, median (range) or wavelengths (percentages). Mathematical value are drawn if the p worth was ?0.05. Categorical parameters was opposed utilising the ? dos make sure carried on parameters making use of the Kruskal–Wallis test.


The mean respondent age was 12.8 (range 11–14) years old and 56% of the respondents were male (table 1). The ethnic background of the study population was mainly Asians (48.3%) and Black/African-Carribeans (19.4%), reflecting the sampling region. Majority of the sampled population (61%) was entitled to free school meals. About one in three respondents (30.6%) was classified as being overweight or obese. Thirty-two per cent of the males were classified as being overweight or obese as compared with 29% of the females. About half of the sampled population (54%) reported that they usually purchased food or drinks from fast food or takeaway outlets more than two to three times a week. About half of the schoolchildren (48%) would spend